Three well known cases of comparative advertising are analyzed below Santro vs. Indica and Icon Sector – Automobiles. It is found that when evaluating direct comparative ads, consumers in low-context communication cultures indicated higher … Indirect Comparative Advertising: It does not directly refer to competing brand names. This novel concept is raising unfair competition and intellectual property infringement related concerns among right owners. Therefore, it is important to protect the interests of such competitors by not allowing comparative advertising to cause confusion, mislead, or discredit a competitor. Whether such an advantage is conferred on the basis of substantiated facts or based on the whims of the advertiser/ manufacturer is the moot point which requires regulation and restraint. It is done by implication. There are legal, commercial and human reasons for this. Comparative advertising can be a great way to make your company stand out in the marketplace and can also help consumers decide which product or service is best for them. The article’s postponements are in response to these concerns, as well as the pressing need for detailed guidelines for direct comparative advertising … In simple terms, it presents the competing product or service in a disparaging way. The results show that there were main and interactive effects of country and/or ad type between these two countries, especially on attitudes toward brand and purchase … Why is use of explicit comparative ads such a high-risk strategy? Authors: R.K. Srivastava. The legality of comparison in advertising is discussed. In health and wellness this has serious consequences. In this type, the response of the prospective consumer is expected in a positive form. According to Pechmann and Ratneshwar (1991), direct comparative advertising (DCA) is an advertising strategy in which the advertiser specifically names its . 205 However, this argument is irrelevant in the discussion over the conditions of legality of comparative advertising. 12, No. Here, the competitor is not even blatantly named whereas in comparative advertising, both the brands are clearly named. Ruelis Corp. is working on a new set of TV commercials. Comparative advertising can be beneficial to the marketplace. Definition. Examples of direct comparative advertising are where the names of the competitive brands are called out in the ads. In direct comparative advertising, the product states the name of the competitor precisely or uses specific ideas, icons, figures, or incidents related explicitly to its competitor to create a side-by-side comparison showing superiority. Some rewards or benefits are offered to the buyers to increase the purchase. It’s Promotional technique in which an advertiser claims the superiority of its product over competing product(s) by direct or indirect comparison. Comparative advertising is defined as "a creative strategy where the advertised brand is explicitly compared with one or more competing brands and the comparison is obvious to the audience" (Barry and Tremblay, 1975:15). Direct mail advertising is capable of achieving immediate action to a large extent. Addresses: Government of Maharashtra's Sydenham Institute of Management Studies, Research and Entrepreneurship Education (SIMSREE), University of Mumbai, Mumbai 400059, Maharashtra, India. Comparative advertising isn’t always just a one-off; it can also form part of a long-running campaign against a company’s competitor in a kind of … All advertising, it is argued, is based on a comparison of products. Objectives of Comparative Advertisements. In Comparative Advertising the advertising company may take the competitor’s name implicitly or explicitly to show that their product is superior or as equivalent. Practical Guide to Comparative Advertising: Dare to Compare is an authoritative, engaging handbook on comparative advertising for food and non-food consumer products. Examples of such campaigns are given from non-tourism and tourism-related industries. Indirect comparative advertising, on the other hand, resorts to usage of similar looking product designs or colours, without naming the brand. Summary of Findings In Study 1, it was found that indirect comparative advertisements could significantly generate more positive attitude toward the brand if the advertisements were positively-worded. Evaluation of To Degrade … … 3. Perceived effectiveness of the ad was measured using two constructs: attitude toward the ad and persuasion effect. Direct versus Indirect Comparative Advertising: The Effects of Advertising Valence Direct Action Advertising: It instigates the buyer to take immediate action. Examples of direct marketing are: – In-person sales calls – Print advertisements – Telephone sales calls – Email advertisement campaigns – Direct mail flyer or sales letters – Promoted or paid advertising on social media – Pre-roll ads on youtube and other video platforms. It can cause confusion, anxiety and require physicians to spend time with patients explaining comparative claims. Comparative advertising is an effective marketing strategy where a company’s offer is presented as far better than their competitors’. Claim substantiation is a common stakeholder interest among management, advertisers, lawyers and researchers. Comparative advertising, on the other hand, is one of the manifestations of competitive advertising. Comparative advertising may refer to an indeterminate number of competitors. Direct comparative ads are also differentiated by whether they are positive or negative. Positive . Perhaps this was one of the first high profile direct advertising case in India when Hyundai Santro compared itself to Ford’s Icon and Tata’s … This handbook covers the corporate culture and strategic goals that encourage comparative advertising, laws and … There is also greater potential for backlash from healthcare providers, … C omparative advertising is a well-known and long-standing marketing tool in the UK, as it is in India and many other countries around the world. Indirect marketing is usually successful as reminders for customers about the product or service when … Comparative advertising aims to objectively and truthfully inform the consumer, and promotes market transparency, keeping down prices and improving products by stimulating competition. The consumer will be able to identify the rival product despite the brand not being named because of the colour of the … (2006) convey a different story about its effectiveness. Comparative advertising has become an effective tool as a marketing strategy for manufacturers which enables a manufacturer to show the superiority or better value of its products over others. Title: Will direct comparative advertising works for a leading brand? Perhaps the most straightforward example of an explicitly comparative ad is an advertiser comparing its price favourably against a competitor. ANALYSIS OF COMPARATIVE ADVERTTISING … The commercial compares one of its products with the other company's product. This type of advertising campaign may include images of a side-by-side comparison or may feature the differing values or costs. Comparative advertising would, therefore, not be an effective marketing tool in France because of its informational style. It can occur without any use of the competitor’s trademark at all. On the other … It can be further described as a marketing communication tactic (Bei et al., 2010) and "a message format in which a coppering brand attacks another brand(s) in the marketplace by … Further, comparative advertising could be indirect or direct. But it can also generate scrutiny and complaints, both from your competitors and the public, so it’s important to know what the rules are. The other end of the spectrum is the comparative ad that calls out the competitor by name and makes a direct comparative claim. While comparative advertising is already permitted in Turkey, direct comparative advertising is a completely new concept. In Malaysia, since direct comparative advertising is not allowed for printed advertisement, … With direct comparative advertising, advertisers: explicitly name a competitor or set of competitors and attack them on the basis of an attribute or benefit. Comparative advertising to consumers—whether it is applied to soft drinks, beer or politics—undermines the confidence or appeal of brands. The Federal Trade Commission’s policy in the area of comparative advertising encourages the naming of, or reference to, competitors. A comparative advertising may involve the comparison of the features of a company’s product with the products of competitor. Direct comparative advertising is the most aggressive form of comparative advertising and it is also the form where disparaging is most common. Introduction of credit card system has also made direct marketing more attractive to the … A conceptual model was developed to find the impact of various measures on purchase intention. … … Famous examples are such as Pepsi over Coca-Cola, Burger King over McDonald’s and Hewlett-Packard over IBM. Indirect comparative advertising (ICA) is a comparative advertising format that compares the advertised product to vague targets such as “all other brands” or “everyone else.” The scarce past literature dedicated to the effectiveness of ICA suggests that advertisers have little reason to use it (Pechman and Ratneshwar 1991). Comparative ads often appear in product labels, commercials, point of sale displays, websites, social media, and direct mail. There is no definition or explanation as to what … However, Miniard et al. In one of its commercials, the company's product is displayed alongside a product from an unnamed company. Campaigns of major air travel companies are detailed, arguments for and against comparison-based publicity are noted and advantages and disadvantages are listed. Comparative advertising should not be confused with parody advertisements as in the case of parody, a fictional product is made as a spoof of the original product. Thus, advertising claiming the superiority or uniqueness of a product constitutes a form of comparative advertising. Direct Comparative Advertising: This type of advertisement deals with the competing products either are explicitly named or can be precisely identified (by photos, images or trademark). It allows companies to compare their products with a competitor, to show customers why their particular offering is better. This study investigates the perceived effectiveness of comparative vs. non-comparative advertising in low- and high-context communication cultures. Direct comparative advertising occurs where the competitors are explicitly named whereas indirect comparative advertising occurs where the name of the competitors are not precisely identified. Abstract: The purpose of this study is to test the viability of the direct comparative … … This study compares the cross-cultural differences in persuasion effectiveness of three ad types — direct comparative, indirect comparative, and noncomparative ads — between subjects in the United States and Korea using relative measures. It is not necessary for the express or tacit, direct or indirect, reference to the competitor to be identifiable. By conducting a detailed … No statutory laws in India defines Comparative Advertising but EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE … Comparative Advertising Rules & Examples Consumer … It tells consumers the differences in products and allows competitors to highlight why the consumer should select its product over another product. But it requires clarity and, if necessary, … Two experiments were conducted in which 2 (direct/indirect comparative advertising) x 2 (positive/negative or factual/narrative information) between-subject designs were used. What is Indirect Marketing? Comparative advertising is defined as advertising that compares alternative brands on objectively measurable attributes or price, and identifies the alternative brand by name, illustration or other distinctive information. Only companies and advertisers can best decide whether comparative advertising is the best means of praising their products; the legislator should always … There are some objectives behind the comparative advertisements: Evaluation of … From a legal … Comparative advertising is advertising in which you compare your product either directly or indirectly with competing products. A study of the honey market. If there is no direct communication between the customer and the seller, it can be classified as indirect marketing.This method is mass-media oriented, where the audience is high in numbers.Also, it is targeted and appeals to a wide array of customer segments. 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